کمکی برای کمک فنر!

کمکی برای کمک فنر!

سیستم‌های تعلیق در خودرو دارای انواع مختلفی هستند که اساس کار هر کدام از آنها با دیگری متفاوت است و به همین خاطر خاصیت منحصر‌به‌فردی را به هندلینگ و سواری خودرو می‌دهد. اما در همه آنها، وجود کمک فنر به عنوان وسیله‌ای برای جلوگیری از ارتعاش‌های پی در پی، لازم و ضروری است و این قطعه در همه سیستم‌های فنربندی رایج در خودرو‌ها مشاهده می‌شود. این قطعه نیز دارای انواع مختلفی است که البته بعضی از آنها چندان رایج نیستند.

 

همان‌طور که می‌دانیم، کمک فنر در کنار فنر‌ها استفاده می‌شود و کار آن جلوگیری از ارتعاش فنر است. زمانی که در یک مسیر حرکت می‌کنیم، فنر‌ها ضربه دریافتی از مسیر را جذب می‌کنند. این جذب‌شدن در فنر منجر به ذخیره انرژی در آنها می‌شود که با باز شدن دوباره این انرژی را تخلیه می‌کنند.

اگر کمک فنر در خودرو نباشد و یا معیوب باشد، این باز و بسته شدن فنر تا زمان اتمام انرژی ذخیره شده در آن ادامه پیدا می‌کند که در نهایت باعث بروز مشکلاتی مثل کاهش لذت رانندگی، کاهش پایداری و هندلینگ خودرو می‌شود. کمک فنر با دریافت انرژی فنر‌ها و میرا کردن آن، اجازه نمی‌دهد بازی و ارتعاش فنر بیش از چند بار آن هم با دامنه کم انجام شود و به این ترتیب، نقش بسزایی در کیفیت رانندگی و پایداری خودرو بازی می‌کند.

انواع کمک فنر ‌

کمک‌فنر‌ها را می‌توان از دو جنبه دسته‌بندی کرد که یکی از نظر ساختار و‌ مکانیسم عملیاتی آنهاست و دیگری از نظر چند‌تیوپه بودن آن. از نظر ساختار، کمک فنر‌ها به 6 دسته گازی، هیدرولیکی یا روغنی، تلسکوپی، هیدرواستاتیکی، قابل تنظیم و اهرمی تقسیم می‌شوند که تفاوت آنها در روش جذب ارتعاشات است که ممکن است به کمک روغن، گاز، اهرم‌بندی و… باشد.

همچنین از نظر ساختار فیزیکی نیز به انواع تک‌تیوپه، دو‌تیوپه و با مخزن بیرونی تقسیم می‌شوند که تفاوت آنها در ساختمان داخلی و محل قرار‌گیری گاز و سیال درون آنهاست.

اما رایج‌ترین کمک فنر‌ها در بین عموم خودرو‌ها، دو نوع گازی و روغنی هستند. کمک فنر‌های هیدرولیکی در واقع تشکیل شده از دو یا سه تیوپ هستند که به همین خاطر به آنها تلسکوپی هیدرولیکی نیز گفته می‌شود که اگر بخواهیم به طور ساده کارکرد آن را مرور کنیم، باید بگوییم که در این کمک فنر یک پیستون در داخل سیال که روغن است، حرکت می‌کند. زمانی که به کمک فنر نیرو وارد می‌شود، پیستون سعی در گذر از لایه‌های روغن دارد و روغن از سوراخ‌های روی پیستون به سمت دیگر عبور می‌کند.

چون روغن به سختی از این سوراخ‌ها عبور می‌کند، پیستون نیز در برابر حرکت خود مقاومت می‌بیند که همین باعث میرا شدن ارتعاشات خواهد شد. باز شدن کمک فنر نیز به همین شکل با مقاومت عبور روغن از سوراخ‌های پیستون همراه است.

اما در کمک فنر گازی، روغن نیز وجود دارد که هر کدام وظیفه خاص خود را دارند. اساس کار این کمک فنر‌ها نیز در عبور هوا و روغن از سوپاپ‌های تعبیه شده در حین دریافت ضربه است که منجر به از بین بردن ارتعاشات می‌شود.

این کمک فنر کاربرد زیادی دارد که استفاده در درب موتور خودرو‌ها، درب صندوق عقب، جک‌های ظریف در کمد‌ها و کابینت‌ها از آن جمله هستند. همچنین چون انتقال حرارت در این کمک فنر‌ها سریع‌تر صورت می‌گیرد، استهلاک کمتری در کارکرد‌های زیاد دارند.

معایب کمک فنر‌

بروز ایراد در کمک فنر منجر به بازی‌کردن زیاد بدنه و تایر‌ها‌ حین عبور از دست‌انداز‌ها و عوارض مسیر می‌شود که حتی در صورت خرابی بیش از حد می‌تواند با ایجاد صدای ضربه و تقه نیز همراه شود.

ضمن اینکه ایراد در کمک فنر به خاطر اینکه اهمیت زیادی در جذب ارتعاشات فنر دارد، می‌تواند منجر به خرابی در قسمت‌های دیگر مثل جعبه فرمان، بلبرینگ چرخ‌ها، گیربکس و زیربندی و جلوبندی خودرو شود.

یکی از ایرادات شایع در کمک فنر‌ها، نشتی روغن از آنهاست که با دیدن بدنه کمک فنر می‌توان به این ایراد پی برد. خرابی کمک فنر باعث می‌شود تا چرخ روی زمین آرام و قرار نداشته باشد یا به اصطلاح برقصد و مدام به بالا و پایین حرکت کند.

اگر هنگام ترمز‌های شدید، دماغه خودرو بیش از حد رو به پایین متمایل شد، نشان از خرابی کمک فنر است.

این حالت می‌تواند در پیچیدن‌ها نیز دیده شود و در پیچ‌های شدید، بدنه به یک سمت بیش از حد متمایل شود.

اما صدای تقه حین عبور از دست‌انداز‌ها، مربوط به خراب شدن بوش‌های سر کمک فنر می‌شود که باعث می‌شوند تا کمک فنر به جای میرا کردن ارتعاشات در جای خود بازی کند. خرابی کمک فنر همچنین روی تایر‌ها نیز اثر و نشانه می‌گذارد که کنده‌شدن قطعه‌ای تایر که به خاطر همان رقصیدن روی مسیر حرکت است، نشانه‌ای از ایراد در کمک فنر‌هاست.

یک راه ساده برای تشخیص سالم و خراب بودن کمک فنر در این است که با دو دست خود به ترتیب هر چهار گوشه خودرو را به پایین فشار دهیم. اگر بالا و پایین آمدن بدنه بیش از یک تا دوبار صورت گرفت و شکل ارتعاش داشت، نشان از خراب بودن کمک فنر است.

منبع: عصر خودرو

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