مزایا و معایب پیشرانه‌های3سیلندر

مزایا و معایب پیشرانه‌های3سیلندر

مزایا و معایب پیشرانه‌های3سیلندر را برسی کردیم و متوجه شدیم که پیشرانه‌های 3 سیلندر قبلاً در خودروهای Kei زیادی بکار رفته‌اند اما هم‌اکنون نیز شاهد بازگشت این خودروها به هاچبک های مدرن هستیم. ما تصمیم گرفتیم تا نگاهی به نقاط قوت و ضعف این پیشرانه‌ها بیندازیم.

اگرچه پیشرانه‌های 3 سیلندر بکار رفته در خودروهای خشنی چون Geo Metro و دایهاتسو Charade بدنام بودند اما پیشرفت‌های صورت گرفته در بحث توازن و آسایش این پیشرانه‌ها باعث شده تا بازهم شاهد بازگشت این پیشرانه‌ها باشیم.

به لطف خودروسازهایی چون فولکس‌واگن، هوندا و ب ام و، پیشرانه‌های 3 سیلندر این روزها در خودروهای بی‌شماری عرضه می‌شوند. یکی از خارق‌العاده‌ترین پیشرانه‌های 3 سیلندر نمونه‌ی 40 کیلوگرمی نیسان با قدرت 400 اسب بخار است که برای خودروی لمانز Zeod RC تدارک دیده شده است.

 

مزایا و معایب پیشرانه‌های3سیلندر

 

علیرغم این فعالیت دوباره، مت رابینسون اخیرا با هوندا سیویک جدید مجهز به پیشرانه‌ی 3 سیلندر 1 لیتری رانندگی کرده و به جرئت می‌توان گفت نظرات او درباره‌ی این پیشرانه متناقض بوده است.

اگرچه خروجی این پیشرانه عدد قابل‌احترام 127 اسب بخار است اما این نویسنده گفته که در زمان سکون و روشن بودن پیشرانه شاهد لرزش ناخواسته‌ی پیشرانه هستیم که وارد کابین نیز می‌شود.

در کل هنگام رانندگی نیز فقدان نرمی عمومی خودرو احساس می‌شود؛ بنابراین قبل از اینکه پیشرانه‌های 3 سیلندر شروع به حکمرانی در کلاس هاچبک ها بکنند، بیایید نگاهی به جنبه‌های خوب و بد این پیشرانه‌ها بیندازیم.

 

مزایا و معایب پیشرانه‌های3سیلندر

 

 

یک پیشرانه‌ی 3 سیلندر اساساً همان پیشرانه‌ی 6 سیلندر خطی بوده که به دو نیم تقسیم شده است. معمولاً در پیشرانه‌های 6 سیلندر خطی، دو سیلندر بیرونی‌تر به نقطه مرگ بالا رسیده و چهار سیلندر دیگر زوایای خاص چرخش به منظور توازن نیروهای اولیه، ثانویه و گشتاور چرخشی پیشرانه را به دست می‌آورند.

در یک پیشرانه‌ی 3 سیلندر، پیستون اول (پیستون جلویی) به نقطه مرگ بالا رسیده درحالی‌که دوتای دیگر 120 درجه دورتر از نقطه مرگ بالا یا پایین هستند.

معنی سخن این است که نیروهای اولیه و ثانویه به‌صورت عمودی بالانس شده‌اند اما گشتاور بالای پیستون‌های متقابل همانند پیشرانه‌های 6 سیلندر خطی در یک راستا یا اتحاد نیستند. به جای آن پیشرانه تلاش می‌کند تا طبیعتاً بچرخد؛ بنابراین برای جلوگیری از این کار یک شفت متوازن کننده برای خنثی کردن نیروی چرخشی لازم است.

 

مزایا و معایب پیشرانه‌های3سیلندر

 

 

عدم توازن گشتاور که در پیشرانه‌های 5 سیلندر خطی نیز به چشم می‌خورد باعث می‌شود سروصدای زیادی از پیشرانه برخیزد. این امر به خاطر وزن شفت متوازن کننده‌ای است که باعث می‌شود میل‌لنگ در برابر آن کار کند. این موضوع باعث می‌شود پیشرانه‌های 3 سیلندر نسبت به برادران متوازن‌تر خود لرزش بیشتری داشته باشند.

همچنین به دلیل این حقیقت که جرقه در هر 240 درجه رخ می‌دهد، یاتاقان‌های میل‌لنگ در فضای 120 درجه‌ای جدای از هم قرار بگیرند. این ویژگی تقابلی در نهایت منجر به عدم نرمی و ایجاد لرزش‌های زیاد در پیشرانه‌های 3 سیلندر می‌شود. رفتار خشن این نوع پیشرانه‌ها در سرعت‌های پایین پیشرانه محسوس‌تر خواهد بود زیرا یکی از مراحل احتراق داخل سیلندر رخ نمی‌دهد.

 

 

مزایا و معایب پیشرانه‌های3سیلندر

 

 

علیرغم این ضعف‌ها، پیشرانه‌های 3 سیلندر به دلایل زیادی مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرند. اول از همه اینکه پیشرانه‌های یاد شده سبک‌وزن و جمع‌وجور بوده و همین امر باعث می‌شود تا در پلتفرم‌های زیادی مورد استفاده قرار بگیرند. برای مثال ب ام و از پیشرانه‌ی 3 سیلندر مینی در خودروی هیبریدی و اسپورت خود یعنی i8 استفاده می‌کند.

در بحث پرفورمنس، یک سیلندر کمتر نسبت به پیشرانه 4 سیلندر خطی استاندارد باعث کاهش اصطکاک قطعات محرک می‌شود. این فاکتور به همراه حجم کمتر پیشرانه باعث مصرف سوخت کم می‌شود.

 

مزایا و معایب پیشرانه‌های3سیلندر

 

از آنجایی که غالباً مدل‌های پایه‌ی خودروها با پیشرانه 3 سیلندر عرضه می‌شوند، این موضوع محتمل است بسته به اینکه جهت‌گیری خودروسازها چگونه باشد، از این پیشرانه‌ها بیشتر استفاده شود.

این پیشرانه‌ها در مقایسه با نسخه‌های 4 سیلندر هزینه‌ی ساخت کمتری دارند بنابراین احتمال استفاده‌ی فراوان از این پیشرانه‌های کم‌حجم تا زمان پیشرفت‌های آتی وجود دارد. هرچند به نظر می‌رسد این آینده با توجه به عادات ما چندان روشن نباشد زیرا ما خواهان پیشرانه‌های آرام‌تر هستیم.

 

 

 

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