توربوشارژ در خودرو + نکات نگهداری بهتر از موتورهای توربو

توربوشارژ در خودرو + نکات نگهداری بهتر از موتورهای توربو

توربو شارژ در سال 1905 میلادی توسط مهندس مکانیک سوییسی آلفرد بوچی اختراع شد. توربوشارژ عبارت است از نوعی کمپرسور توربینی و یک کمپرسور گریز از مرکز که توسط یک شفت با اتصال فلانچی به آن متصل است. گازهای خروجی از موتور باعث چرخش توربین گاز شده و به سبب آن کمپرسور شروع به چرخش کرده، هوای محیط را مکش می‌کند و سپس آن را متراکم و به طرف موتور می‌فرستد. هوای ورودی بیشتر به موتور، به معنی ورود سوخت بیشتر به داخل موتور و در نهایت افزایش انرژی و قدرت خروجی موتور است.

نحوه عملکرد
پرخوران به خروجی اگزوز موتور متصل شده است. گازهای خروجی اگزوز از بین پره‌های توربین (که شبیه یک توربین گازی است) عبور کرده و آن را میچرخانند. هر چه گازهای بیشتری خارج شود توربین سریع‌تر می‌چرخد. توربین توسط یک محور به کمپرسور که بین فیلتر هوا و لوله‌های ورودی هوا واقع شده متصل میشود. کمپرسور هوای ورودی به موتور را فشرده می‌کند. کمپرسور یک پمپ از نوع گریز از مرکز است که هوا را از مرکز پره‌ها کشیده و به بیرون پمپ می‌کند. به منظور جلوگیری از افزایش دمای بیش از حد هوای ورودی به موتور (که سبب افزایش حساسیت به پدیده ضربه (Knock) می‌شود)، هوای فشرده شده از درون یک مبدل هواخنک (که در جلوی خودرو نصب می‌شود) عبور کرده و دمای آن کاهش می‌یابد.

اجزا

• توربین
• کمپرسور
• محور اتصال
• محفظه کمپرسور (مسیر ورود و خروج هوا)
• پره‌های کمپرسور
• یاتاقان
• مسیر روغن‌کاری یاتاقان
• محفظه توربین (مسیر ورود و خروج دود)
• پره‌های توربین
• دریچه کنار گذر (Gate Wast)
• عملکرد دریچه کنارگذر
• شیر کنارگذر کمپرسور (Valve Dump)

تفاوت‌ها و ملاحظات
• افزایش قیمت موتور به خاطر تجهیزات پرخوران
• نسبت تراکم کمتر در موتور پرخوران: با نسبت تراکم کمتری میتوان به توان مورد نظر دست یافت، ضمن این که به خاطر افزایش دمای هوای ورودی به موتور، حساسیت به ضربه (Knock) بیشتر می‌شود، لذا بر استفاده از سوخت با عدد اکتان بالا در موتور پرخوران توصیه اکید میشود.
• صرف زمان و هزینه بیشتر کالیبراسیون در مقایسه با موتور تنفس طبیعی
• لزوم استفاده از جنس مقاومتر برای قطعات اگزوز به خاطر افزایش دمای گازهای خروجی
• نیاز به استفاده از افشانه‌های سوخت و پمپ سوخت با دبی خروجی بیشتر
• نیاز به استفاده از شمع با قدرت جرقه‌زنی بالاتر (شمع‌های با بیش از یک الکترود)
• نیاز به کویل قویتر
• لزوم تقویت مسیرهای هوارسانی به خاطر افزایش فشار و دمای هوای ورودی به موتور
• در مجموع لزوم بازنگری در طراحی قطعات بلوک و سرسیلندر با توجه به افزایش فشار داخل سیلندر

نکات مهم در خصوص نگه‌داری هر چه بهتر موتور با سیستم توربوشارژ:
توربو شارژ در شرایط تحت بار در دورهای بسیار بالا و نزدیک 200 هزار دور بر دقیقه کار می‌کند که برای کارکرد در این شرایط، مجهز به روان‌کاری تحت فشار و خنک کاری است به خاطر سرعت بسیار بالای پره‌های توربین و پمپ سیستم توربو و حساسسیت یاتاقان‌های پرخوران (برای جلوگیری از آسیب به موتور و افزایش طول عمر آن) نکات زیر باید مورد توجه ویژه قرار گیرد.
• هرگونه نشتی آب و یا روغن از موتور باید مورد توجه ویژه قرار گیرد و در صورت مشاهده به سرعت برای رفع آن اقدام شود.
• نشتی هوا از لوله‌های هوای پرفشار و اینترکولر
باعث افت توان و افزایش مصرف سوخت و افزایش احتمال آسیب به موتور میشود. بنابراین باید از محکم بودن بست‌های اتصالات مسیر هوا و عدم آسیب دیدگی لوله‌ها اطمینان حاصل شود.
• با توجه به حساسیت پره‌های توربوشارژ به ذرات خارج ی به دلیل سرعت زیاد، فیلتر هوا باید به موقع طبق سرویس‌ها تعویض شود.در صورتی که خودرو در مناطق دارای گردوغبار بیش از حد مجاز مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرد، تعویض فیلتر هوا باید با فواصل زمانی کوتاه‌تر صورت پذیرد. در خصوص فیلتر روغن و روغن نیز همین ملاحظات باید در نظر گرفته شود.
• با توجه به دور بسیار بالای توربو شارژ، در هنگامی که اتصالات لوله‌های متصل به مسیر هوای توربوشارژ باز باشد، هرگز موتور را روشن نکنید.
از دست کاری پره‌های توربوشارژ و یا وارد کردن فشار و ضربه بپرهیزید.
• اگر خودرو برای مدت بیش از یک روز متوقف بوده یا بلافاصله پس از تعویض روغن یا فیلتر و هم چنین هنگامی که دمای موتور پایین است، فرصت دهید موتور حداقل 30 ثانیه در دور آرام کار کند.
• در صورتی که دمای موتور بالاست یا پس از پیمایش مسافت طولانی در جاده با سرعت بالا و یا وارد آمدن فشار به موتور، قبل از خاموش کردن اجازه دهید به مدت 60 ثانیه موتور در دور آرام کار کند.
• در صورت روشن شدن چراغ چک (عیب موتور) موتور، از پیمایش مسافت طولانی با خودرو در این وضعیت خودداری شود.
• سطح آب و روغن موتور به صورت دوره‌ای مورد بررسی قرار گیرد.

چه تفاوتی میان واحدهای کیلووات، PS و اسب‌بخار وجود دارد؟
پمپ روغن چگونه کار می کند؟

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